Quality Levels for Hi-Rel EEE Parts
This page gives Electronic designers and Parts Engineers the confidence in their designs for applications such as personal electronics, automobiles, avionics systems, munitions and satellites. Supporting these applications requires different levels of quality and reliability provided through:
- Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products.
- The Automotive Electronics Council (AEC)-Q100 automotive standard.
- Enhanced Products (ruggedized COTS and the Aerospace Qualified Electronic Component [AQEC] standard).
- Qualified Manufacturers List (QML) Class Q (Military Performance Specification [MIL-PRF] 38535).
- QML Class V (space-grade, radiation-tolerant MIL-PRF 38535).
- ECSS-Q-ST-60C – Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) components
- ESCC – ESA European Specification system
Grade 1 EEE parts typically meet the highest reliability standards, and have been subjected to independent verification. Additionally, Grade 1 parts are manufactured with the greatest amount of element evaluation, traceability, in-process testing and final screening as compared to other parts of the same type, but different reliability grades. Grade 1 parts are those produced under assurance classes providing the highest possible level of quality and reliability (e.g. ESCC, QML Class V & K, JANS for discrete semiconductors, QPL Class S, Failure Rate Level (FRL) S).
Grade 2 EEE parts typically meet rigorous (but not the highest) military or industry reliability standards, and have been subjected to independent verification. Grade 2 parts may be manufactured at facilities that also manufacture Grade 1 parts, but typically with less element evaluation, traceability, in-process testing and final screening as compared to Grade 1 parts of the same type. Grade 2 parts are those produced under assurance classes recognized by to have a high level of quality and reliability (e.g. QML Q & H, QPL Class B, JANTXV for discrete semiconductors, FRL R or P).
Grade 3 EEE parts typically meet military or industry standards for reliability, but there may be significant exceptions, such as omitted tests or reduced temperature ranges. Manufacturing and testing of parts may not have been independently verified. Traceability to manufacturing lot may not be available. Grade 3 contains many advanced electronic functions (from a space flight applications standpoint). Parts listed are those produced by reputable manufacturers under a recognized quality assurance system (ER, QML, QPL, ISO 9000) or their equivalent.
Grade 4 EEE parts typically meet vendor standards for self-defined or commercial market place reliability criteria, but have not been independently verified. Grade 4 EEE parts can also be referred to as COTS. Traceability to manufacturing lot or testing data may not be available. Additionally, homogeneity cannot be assumed in terms of manufacturer facility, manufacturing lot, die origin, etc., when purchasing multiples of a specific part. Finally, most aspects of COTS part manufacturing are subject to change by the manufacturer without notice to the customer, potentially nullifying any previous qualification efforts.
EM Engineering Model parts are Flight representative in FFF (Form, Fit and Function)
The EM’s are used for functional qualification, except redundancy verification, failure survival demonstration and parameter drift checking.
The EM is also used for final validation of test facilities and GSE and the related procedures.
MICROREL offers Consulting Services for High-Reliability EEE Parts Components and RF Microwave parts to the Military Standards requirements for Military and Aerospace applications